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As a Lubbock home inspector I see lots of strange things. In just the past one week I've conducted two Lubbock home inspections and found houses that have suffered attic fires at some point in the past. In both cases extensive rebuilding and enormous expense was necessary to restore the houses to a functional condition. In the first house, the fire started with a pan full of food that caught fire on the cooktop. The range exhaust vent was turned on to remove the smoke that was gathering in the kitchen. (Big mistake. More on that later).The purpose of the range exhaust vent fan is to remove moisture and grease laden air rising from the food at the stove top and send it outside. This is desirable to prevent both a build up of moisture in the house, as well as grease from being deposited on interior surfaces all around the house. There are two types of range exhaust vents. One type pulls the air through a vent pipe up through the attic, and on through the roof, to vent the air outside. The other type is a recirculating type, which uses one or two metal filters to collect the grease. (It doesn't remove the humidity). In both types, a build up of grease can occur. In the first type, the grease can build up in the vent pipe that runs from above the cooktop up through the roof. In the recirculating type, the metal filters will become coated with grease over time. If something you are cooking at your stove top catches fire, it can catch the grease filters or vent piping on fire as well. This is one good reason why these filters should be cleaned occasionally if you have the recirculating type.
As for the first house, once the exhaust fan was turned on, it also pulled the flames into the vent pipe and caught the grease on fire that had built up there. This may have been ok, because the vent pipe through attics is required to be metal and would normally contain the hot gases and vent them safely through the roof to the outside. But a vent pipe connection in the attic had come completely loose and was venting directly into the attic. You can see where this is going! With the flames from the burning food being pulled into the vent by the fan, and the flames from the grease fire in the vent pipe being pushed by the fan into the attic; it was like taking a blow torch to the attic.
This is a picture of the attic. The new looking wood at the top half of the picture is just that- the new rebuilt area. The lower half of the picture shows the older wood that wasn't burnt badly enough to replace. It has been sprayed with a white colored odor blocker. And, even though you can't see it in the picture, the area that had to be completely replaced was very large.
In the second house, a barbeque grill had been used with a lawnmower and gas can nearby. Both were right next to a wood fence which ran up to the house. Again, you can see where this is going. The owners aren't sure exactly how it happened but at some point I'm sure the gasoline got involved, then the fence, and finally the underside of the eave and up into the attic.
When we at Lubbock Inspections inspect a house, we look for problems like the ones I've described here. If you ever get a home inspection and your inspector says the range exhaust vent pipe is disconnected in the attic, be sure and get it fixed! Same thing if he says your recirculating type range exhaust filters are very dirty. Put them in the sink (they are removable) and clean them with a good degreaser spray. And of course, we all need to be very careful with gasoline. Be safe --- Kim Christensen
Beginning around the turn of this century, building practices began to change regarding deck construction. Most older decks, prior to about 2000, often were built to lesser standards than those that are required today. There have been many instances through the years of decks collapsing, causing severe injuries and deaths. In fact, in just the past 10 years there have been thousands of reported injuries and more than 20 deaths as the result of deck collapses. If you have a deck and it's only a foot off the ground then it's not as big of a deal. But if you have a second story deck and it collapses while you and your guests are on it, then it's a huge problem.
If you have a balcony that is supported by cantilevered joists (joists that start well inside the house and continue out to the deck), and as long as the length at the deck portion of the joist is not more than one third (two thirds of the joist is inside the house), then this is considered a valid practice. The problem comes when the deck was constructed without cantilevered joists and is simply attached to the house where the two meet. There are two main problems that can occur at this attachment point. Improper fastening methods and water intrusion.
There should be a treated or decay resistant ledger board (2" x 8" minimum) that attaches the deck to the house. Also, this ledger board should never be attached directly to the house wall cladding. This includes brick, stucco, or any other material. The wall cladding should be cut at this point and sit above the horizontal ledger board. Nails are not sufficient to attach the ledger board to the house. Galvanized steel or stainless steel 1/2" bolts or lag screws are the usual minimum size that should be used, and they should go through the house sheathing and attach to a band or rim board in the house. Special hardware such as Simpson Strong- Ties are also very helpful. These brackets are designed just for this purpose and greatly increase the horizontal strength of the attachment. This structural attachment is important because it must carry the vertical weight load of the deck and the people who will be on it, as well as the horizontal force that wants to pull the deck out away from the house. If the attachment can't withstand these forces, deck collapse will result.
As for water intrusion at the attachment point, it's very important to have in place the proper systems to keep water away from it. If water regularly penetrates to the ledger board and the attachment hardware, rotting and corrosion will eventually compromise their structural integrity. To achieve this goal, metal flashing (usually galvanized steel) should be seen tucked behind the bottom of the wall cladding and extending over the ledger board. This will help drain the water away and protect the area.
Another problem that has developed is failure of the hardware attaching the deck to the house. This hardware can sometimes corrode fairly quickly from the chemicals that are used in pressure treated lumber. Particularly in decks built from about 2004 to 2007 when the chemicals ACQ and CBA began to be used to treat wood. To resist this corrosion, galvanized hardware should be of the hot-dipped type and not the thinner coatings like electro-galvanized or mechanical plated. Aluminum should never be used, and the mixing of different types (for example, using galvanized and stainless steel together) should not be done.
Finally, all guard rails and handrails should be properly constructed and solid. If you have a two story deck, or are thinking of buying a house that has one, be smart, and have it inspected by a knowledgeble home inspector who knows how to look for the previously mentioned concerns. Decks can be wonderful and relaxing places to be, but a deck collapse would be a life changing event that no one should ever have to go through. For more information, visit Simpson Strong-Ties at http://www.strongtie.com/deckcenter/index.html?source=topnav# , or the American Wood Council at awc.org/codes/dcaindex.html --- Kim Christensen
Did you know that ground fault circuit interrupters work even when installed in older homes that don’t have grounded wiring!
It’s counter-intuitive but it’s true. As you may know, GFCI’s help protect people from getting electrocuted. They are now required at kitchen countertops, bathrooms, outdoors and near other sinks. 3 conductor wiring (with a ground wire), started being used around 1960. It also protects people from electric shock, but it works in a different way. The metal chassis of an appliance in your home is connected to the ground wire in the appliance plug. When this plug is plugged in to a receptacle outlet in a home that has 3 conductor wiring (hot, neutral and ground), the appliance chassis is grounded. If a hot wire in the appliance comes loose and touches the chassis, a very large current will flow for an instant and the house circuit breaker for that circuit will trip off. Thus you won’t get a nasty shock if you touch the appliance.
But how can GFCI’s work in houses that don’t even have grounded wiring? As we said earlier, GFCI's work in a different way. They compare the electric current (amps) going to the appliance on the hot wire with the amps coming back on the neutral wire. If everything is working normally, they should be exactly the same. However, if you touch that chassis we were just talking about (in contact with a loose hot wire) and you’re grounded because you’re washing dishes, in a bathtub, or standing on wet ground, you become another path for the electric current as it tries to get to ground. Now, the amps that are coming back on the neutral wire are not equal to the amps going to the appliance because some of the current has split off and is going through you! In other words you’re getting shocked. The good news is that you’re a smart cookie. Even though you live in an older house with no ground wiring, you listened to your home inspector when he said- “GFCI’s are not required on older homes but they are a safety upgrade. If your budget allows, have them installed”, and you took his advice. Your GFCI has sensed that there is a ground fault and has shut off the electricity. And now you know the truth about GFCI’s. --- Kim Christensen
We were recently interviewed by Texas Homes where we discussed the best ways to choose a reliable home inspector. To read the full article click here.
Incandescent light bulbs are being phased out. Thomas Edison changed the world with his electric light bulbs and they have stood the test of time for over a century, but today there are many new types of light bulbs showing up on retailer's shelves. You may or may not have heard, but the old incandescent light bulbs are finally being phased out. Some types of incandescent bulbs such as appliance, colored, three-way and other less commonly used bulbs are exempt and will still be available. I imagine Mr. Edison would be amazed and enthralled at some of the new lighting technology that is now available. From halogen to compact fluorescent (cfl) to light emitting diode (l.e.d.), the choices can be bewildering. (An l.e.d. light bulb is pictured above). Fortunately we non-scientists don't have to understand how they work, we just have to get used to them. And even though change can be difficult, the new bulbs are vastly superior to the old ones in many ways. Some of the new bulbs are tougher, last much longer, and sip electricity instead of guzzling it. Since lighting can represent as much as 25% of a typical homes electricity use, using bulbs that are much, much more efficient is a big deal. Not to mention a money saver. The old incandescent bulbs wasted about 90% of the energy they use in the form of heat. One of the worst burns I ever saw was when my sister was around 10 years old and got burned by an incandescent light bulb. She fell off the bed and knocked over a lamp. Unfortunately, when she landed on the floor her thigh pressed against the bare bulb, and she was in an awkward position and couldn't get up for a second or two. The bulb caused a severe burn that turned into a blister the size of a goose egg. Cfl's and l.e.d. bulbs don't get hot like this. L.E.D. bulbs barely even get warm.
Compact fluorescent bulbs (cfl's) Cfl's have been around for a while now so you've surely seen them. They're kind of funny looking. A typical incandescent bulb might cost $7.23 per year to operate (in electrical usage). An equivalent cfl bulb will only cost about $1.57 to operate for the same time period. Also, cfl's last about 10 times longer. Early cfl's had a pause after you flipped the switch before they would come on. They also tended to be rather dim for the first minute or so. The newer cfl's don't have these problems. There also are new cfl's that are dimmable.
L.E.D. bulbs L.e.d. bulbs are the newest bulbs out. They cost more, but prices will come down. Even at today's prices they will save you a lot of money because they are so very efficient and they last so long. That same incandescent bulb that cost $7.23 in electricity to run will only cost about 96 cents a year if it is an l.e.d.. That's an incredible difference. Also it will probably last about 25 times as long. That gives it a life of around 25,000 hours. New types of l.e.d. bulbs are coming out. They are now available for chandeliers, flood lamps, spot lights, night lights, and motion sensor security lights. There is one model that is a combination night light (it turns itself on and off), power failure light (it turns itself on when the electricity goes off, powered by it's built-in rechargeble battery), and flashlight (you can unplug it from the wall, and fold up the a.c. plugs). Pretty high tech stuff for a light bulb! There are even children's night lights that project an image of your child's favorite cartoon characters on the wall. L.e.d. bulbs have instant on and some models are dimmable.
What size bulb should I buy? Because the new bulbs are so efficient, a 60 watt bulb is not a 60 watt bulb anymore. Most of the new bulbs have packaging that states the equivalent size of old bulb that the new one is replacing. For example: "same light output as a 60 watt incandescent". If the package doesn't have this information, it will probably have the light output (measured in lumens). The following table lists the approximate light output for common old incandescent bulbs:
40 watt- 450 lumens
60 watt- 800 lumens
75 watt- 1100 lumens
100 watt- 1600 lumens
What color of light would you like? The color of the new light bulbs is listed in degrees Kelvin, but there is also a word description which may be easier to remember for most people. The following table lists some of the typical colors:
2700 * K (Kelvin)- "Soft white" (Warm yellowish light that most of us are used to from the old incandescent bulbs)
3000 * K- "Warm white" (Close to the light quality of soft white, but a bit less yellow)
3500 * K- "Bright white" (Whiter still, with less yellow)
5000 * K- "Natural daylight" (As the description implies, similar to sunlight)
Personally, I'm so used to the color of the old bulbs that the daylight bulbs don't look right to me. I prefer the soft or warm white color. If you're still using old incandescent bulbs, give the new ones a try. Once you get used to them you'll never want to go back. --- Kim Christensen
Carbon monoxide alarms- Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas that is present in automobile exhaust fumes and in the combustion gases from fuel burning appliances (furnaces, open flames, space heaters, water heaters or fireplaces burning natural gas, propane or wood); especially when incomplete combustion is occurring. Incomplete combustion can occur when there is a malfunction of the appliance, or there is inadequate combustion air available, or if the appliance flue is stopped up. Detection of carbon monoxide in a home is impossible without a CO alarm. CO gas is poisonous and in high enough concentrations causes sickness and death. CO replaces the oxygen in your blood, and in fact, the hemoglobin (oxygen carrying component) in your blood has an affinity for CO about 200 times greater than for oxygen. If there is any CO gas in your house your bloodstream will absorb it. Symptoms of CO poisoning include- headache, nausea, weakness and sleepiness. Many years ago, my parents awoke on a cold winter morning with the realization that something was very wrong. The furnace was malfunctioning and producing CO and other combustion gases. They both had pronounced headaches and a profound feeling of sleepiness, and it was all my dad could do to fall out of bed and crawl to the front door. He stuck his head outside for a few moments and quickly came to. Then he was able to turn off the furnace and open some windows. You may have heard about a man who died in a Lubbock motel recently due to carbon monoxide poisoning.
CO alarms are recommended. The previous examples are some of the reasons that CO alarms are recommended for all homes that have an attached garage or any fuel burning appliances. CO alarms are now required in new construction in Texas and many other states. In existing homes they are a safety upgrade. CO alarms can be purchased by themselves or in combination with smoke alarms. The stand-alone CO alarms retail for about $15 to $60 dollars and are widely available at home improvement and other stores. Unfortunately, the sensors in these alarms only last for approximately 5 to 10 years and then the alarms need to be replaced. Many of the new CO alarms have long life batteries that will last for the life of the alarm, so you won't have to mess with changing batteries. Other types are powered by the household electrical supply. Some of the alarms will tell you when it is time to replace them.
Types of CO alarms- Most alarms sound an audible alarm but there are some wireless alarms that can vibrate pillow pads, light strobe lights or signal a remote handset. Some CO alarms have a digital readout that indicates the CO concentration in parts per million. These types of alarms cost more than more basic types. The 4 basic types of alarms are- Opto-chemical, Semiconductor, Biomimetic and Electro-chemical.
Opto-chemical alarms are the cheapest but they are the only type that doesn't produce an alarm (a colored chemical changes color if CO gas is present) thus these "alarms" offer the lowest degree of protection.
Semiconductor alarms use a sensor that needs to be heated to about 400* C in order to work. Because of the large power demand these alarms are usually powered by household electricity instead of batteries. The superior performance of the remaining 2 types of alarms is beginning to replace these alarms.
Biomimetic alarms last for about 6 years if powered by lithium batteries and were the first mass marketed CO alarms. They are the most reliable according to a report from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Also, this technology is the only one that tested false alarm free, which makes them popular in larger locations such as hospitals, apartments and motels where the cost of a false alarm is high. But because these alarms cost more than the other types they are used mostly in the higher end areas and in RV's.
Electro-chemical alarms use a fuel cell as a sensor. These alarms are very accurate, use a low amount of power because they operate at room temperature and the sensors have a long life (usually 5 years or more). The cost of these alarms was high initially but has come down. These alarms are now the most popular alarms in the USA and Europe.
Alarm placement- If you are installing only 1 CO alarm, the Consumer Product Safety Commission recommends that it be located near the bedrooms so you will be most likely to hear it if it goes off. If there are separate bedroom areas, an alarm just outside of each area would be helpful. Additional alarms on every level of the house and/ or in every bedroom provide additional protection, but even 1 or 2 alarms give much better protection than none (most homes don't have any CO alarms). CO alarms should not be placed directly above or beside fuel burning appliances to avoid false alarms. These appliances sometimes give off small amounts of CO especially when they first turn on. Therefore, stay about 15 feet or more away from the appliances and from humid areas such as bathrooms. CO gas has almost the exact same density as air and therefore is not lighter or heavier than air. So alarms placed at ceiling level or near the floor should all work. However, having said that, sometimes the CO gas from a malfunctioning appliance is contained in the warm air rising from the appliance. Therefore some people think that placing the alarms at or near ceiling level may give an earlier warning. Be sure to read the manufacturers' placement recommendations. . . . And sleep peacefully knowing you are protected. --- Kim Christensen TREC 20358
On Palm Sunday, 2003, there was an overnight fire at an off campus house near Ohio State University. 5 students died. 2 years later, also on Palm Sunday, there was another off campus fire. This time at Miami of Ohio University. 3 students died. Between the 2 houses there were more than 20 ionization smoke alarms present, yet 8 students died. More on ionization smoke alarms later.
On November 18, 2014, the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) for the first time publicly acknowledged that current smoke alarms have only a 45-49% overall alarm success rate and supported significant changes to the UL 217 alarm testing standards. This is a very poor rate of performance, especially for something as important as a warning to get out of a burning building! So what is the problem? It turns out that there are two kinds of smoke alarms: Ionization and Photoelectric. Most people have ionization alarms- in fact, they are present in over 90% of homes. We are now finding out that ionization alarms have big weaknesses. Ionization alarms are not as good at detecting smoldering fires. This means that with these alarms, there is often a delay in sounding the alarm. This delay can make all the difference between surviving a fire or succumbing to it. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has tested smoke alarms and has reportedly determined that ionization alarms are 30 minutes slower, on average, to sound an alarm in the early smoldering stage of fires than photoelectric alarms, and may completely fail to sound at all! A smoldering fire can produce a lot of deadly fumes in 30 minutes. Ionization alarms are also more likely to sound a false alarm from a bit of smoke produced by cooking in the kitchen, or the mist from a hot shower. False alarms are a big problem because a lot of people end up disconnecting their alarms because of these. And a disconnected smoke alarm has a 0% chance of warning you of a fire. Photoelectric smoke alarms on the other hand, will almost always give a much earlier warning in the case of smoldering fires. Since many fires start out by smoldering for a period of time, an earlier warning of these types of fires can buy you precious time to get out of a burning building. As for the issue of false alarms, photoelectric alarms are much less likely to produce these than ionization alarms. So which kind should you buy? I believe that photoelectric alarms are the better choice hands down. The International Association of Fire Fighters and ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors are now recommending photoelectric smoke alarms over ionization.
Another option is to buy combination smoke alarms. These types have, both photoelectric and ionization detectors built into them. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) recommends this approach. However some of these alarms will not sound unless both detectors in them recognize the need to sound the alarm. This makes it even less likely that it will sound in a timely manner. And there is still the problem of nuisance or false alarms. Still other alarm types combine a smoke alarm with a carbon monoxide alarm. Some of the new alarms can even talk. Can you imagine your alarm yelling "Fire! Fire!", or "Carbon Monoxide!". Another nice feature: Some newer smoke alarms have a long life lithium battery. It is good for the 10 year life of the alarm. And after 10 years of so, when it's time to replace the smoke alarm, it will tell you! Just think- No more replacing batteries! That has always been such a hassle.
If you're in the market for smoke alarms, or want to replace your old ionization alarms with a safer alternative, choose photoelectric. --- Kim Christensen
Home inspectors are given the enormous task of looking for thousands of potential problems when we inspect houses. But one of the key things that we look for is leaking water. Whether it’s rain water entering the house through a crack at the roof, exterior siding or flashing, or a plumbing leak from a fixture or pipe, water leaks cause damage and rotting of building materials and mold growth. The following is a list of some of the key areas where water leaks are most prevalent.
Roof leaks- Roof leaks are very common. One of the main ways that roofs leak is at roof penetrations. These are the places where objects go through the roof. Things such as the chimney, plumbing vent pipes, and furnace and water heater flues. Different types of flashing materials are used at these locations to try and prevent water entry. Around chimneys, metal flashing, like that shown in this picture is preferred.
If you have a chimney that has no metal flashing, and instead has asphalt, caulk or mortar, rain water leaks will be more likely.
Asphalt/ bitumin flashing, like that shown at this electrical mast head, or concrete/ mortar is prone to cracks.
Leaks will be more likely. In this case, water could possibly enter the electrical panel box. Yikes!
This water heater flue is missing its cap, Rain water will be able to pour down the flue into the water heater heat exchanger.
Plumbing leaks- Plumbing leaks are also very common. If a sink faucet is dripping into the sink or a toilet it leaking water into the toilet bowl, it will waste water, but obviously won’t damage anything. If the leak is outside of a plumbing fixture and it goes undetected or otherwise un-repaired, major damage and mold are almost guaranteed. If you find a plumbing leak in your house, be sure and get it repaired so you can avoid a scene like the one in this picture.
Air conditioner condensate leak- Another fairly common source of leaking water is at the indoor air conditioning unit. The indoor refrigerated air conditioning coil gets very cold. That’s how it cools the house. Because it gets so cold, it causes humidity in the air to condense and collect at the air conditioning housing. Because of this fact, all refrigerated air conditioning units have a condensate drain line (usually a small pvc pipe) to carry this water away. If there is a drain nearby, the water will be deposited there. If not, a small condensate pump may be used to pump the water to a distant drain or plumbing fixture. Still another option, is to run the drain line through a wall or through the crawl space and allow it to drip on the ground at the exterior of the house. But things can go wrong. If the drain line becomes clogged (with moss growth for example) the water will back up into the air conditioner housing and overflow. Also, the drain line couplings can come loose and leak water. Finally, if a condensate pump is being used, it can fail. All of these scenarios will lead to water leakage. In this picture, condensate water had been leaking for a considerable time and running down the air conditioner/ furnace housing.
Stop water leaks early if possible- The moral to this story is that you should stop water leaks early if you can. That way you can avoid an expensive repair. Happy leak busting. --- Kim Christensen
How bad can they be? They’re everywhere- I see an almost endless series of Federal Pacific Electric (FPE) panel boxes with their classic “stab-lok” circuit breakers when I do inspections in Lubbock and throughout West Texas. Jillions of them were sold, not just in our area, but throughout the country from the 1950’s to the early 1980’s. My introduction to FPE panel boxes came when I was studying to be a home insurance inspector (my job before my current general home inspector gig). The message from the insurance company training course was very clear- We don’t like FPE panel boxes. I was instructed to write this up whenever I saw it in a house. So that is one reason that a house with FPE equipment is a problem. If the insurance company finds out that it’s there, they may not insure the house- unless it’s replaced. So why don’t insurance companies like FPE boxes? . . . For the same reasons that most others who have spent any time studying them don’t like them. FPE panel boxes with stab-lok circuit breakers were “value engineered”. They were designed to be cheap to manufacture. Nothing wrong with that; everybody likes a bargain. BUT THEY HAVE TO WORK PROPERLY! If they don’t, that’s a problem. And FPE boxes and breakers often don’t. FPE is a company that put most of its money into marketing and not so much into building a good product.
The main problems with FPE- There are several problems with FPE panels- 1. All of the FPE panels that are still in use (and, as stated, there are a lot of them) are old and were designed poorly and to lesser codes than modern panel boxes. They are often very overcrowded by today’s safer standards. They also have many unique problems that newer panels don’t have. 2. The circuit breakers, in particular, are poorly designed. They have too many moving parts and often don’t do what they are supposed to do, which is to shut off the electricity if an overload or a short circuit occurs. If the breakers don’t shut off when too much electrical current is flowing, excessive heating occurs in the wires for that circuit. And these wires run through the attic, down walls, etc. So now we’re talking about the f word. No, not that one. The word is “fire”. FPE panel boxes and circuit breakers are fire prone. Many of them will never be a problem, but too many of them will. And a house fire will not make for a good day. 3. The connection of the circuit breakers to the bus is another problem. It is inferior and doesn’t always make a good connection.Modern circuit breakers have jaws that clamp directly onto the bus to make the connection, but stab-lok breakers have metal stabs that insert into a socket in the bus at a right angle. This often yields a poor connection, and these components can become damaged (as pointed out in the picture at right that I took of an FPE panel in 2015). Note the bent socket and the discolored bus due to overheating. If the connection becomes poor enough, arcing begins to occur here. This can create tremendous heat when it happens. Thus, the FPE panel box itself can catch on fire. This is a device that is supposed to prevent fires, but it can actually cause them. 4. Finally, FPE did something that companies and corporations shouldn’t do- They cheated. In Docket #L-2904-97, as part of a class action, the Superior Court of New Jersey determined that “FPE cheated during its testing of circuit breakers in order to obtain Underwriters Laboratories (UL) approval”.
Identifying FPE panel boxes- FPE panel boxes are pretty easy to identify. You may see FPE on the front cover. Also, once you open the cover you will see Federal Pacific Electric or Federal Pacific at the bottom of the paper data sheet. One final dead giveaway- Some of the circuit breaker handles are black but many have a distinctive dark orange color at the tip as circled in this picture.
Should all FPE panel boxes be replaced?- Ideally, all older circuit breakers should be considered for replacement after they’re 2, 3, or 4 decades old, but most people don’t do this. Also, there are other manufacturers of problematic breakers such as Zinsco and others. But I believe that FPE panel boxes and breakers are particularly troublesome due to the inherent problems previously discussed as well as the fact that such a large number of them were sold. The presence of FPE equipment undeniably creates a higher risk for electrical fires. There are places in the U.S. where most home inspectors, electricians, and real estate agents are very aware of the problems with FPE. In West Texas, the word hasn’t completely gotten out yet. If you’re a skeptic, please check out some of the other sources of information at the bottom of this page. Also, ask yourself if you would want this equipment in your home. I have seen several different sources that estimate over 2,000 fires occur in this country each year as a direct result of FPE panels. The fact that many of the current panels have not caused a problem (yet) is not surprising because overloads and short circuits don’t occur very often. But if and/ or when they do, that is precisely when you want your breakers to do their job. I’ve seen different figures that state that from 23% to 60% of FPE circuit breakers completely fail in their performance when tested by authorities. This is a terrible rate of performance. Modern circuit breakers have a failure rate of less than 1%. In the early 1980’s the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) tested FPE breakers and found abnormally high failure rates, especially on 2-pole FPE breakers. The CPSC ended a two year investigation into FPE in 1983 but didn’t issue a product recall because of what it said were budget issues (its own). As FPE was beginning to get into trouble, (you know- houses burning down, panels catching on fire, lawsuits starting), improvements were made to the breakers; but there were limits to what they were willing to do because truly fixing the breaker and bus problems would make them too expensive, and FPE would lose their competitive advantage. In short, I recommend replacement of these components if at all possible.
Other sources of info- Check out this link for more info: http://www.inspect-ny.com/fpe/fpe.html The best article I’ve ever seen about FPE is Doug Hansen’s expert opinion at http://www.codecheck.com/cc/ccimages/PDFs/FPE_2012.pdf This article is highly technical in the middle pages, but anyone can understand the first and last pages and these pages are very interesting. Also, on the last page of this article, be sure to read “A Report from the Front Lines” by Jim Katen, (a really smart home inspector in Oregon). A good video on the web from Bay area investigative reports is at http://www.nbcbayarea.com/investigations/Federal-Pacific-Circuit-Breakers-Investigation-Finds-Decades-of-Danger-171406921.html Or just google “FPE panel boxes” and spend a few minutes looking at what comes up. One final note, American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI) member Terry Heller of Forest Hill, MD posted this picture on the ASHI inspectors’ discussion forum on July 17, 2011. I am quoting him as to what his response is when people ask him what he thinks about FPE panels- “Sometimes I just show them a picture from my phone. This home belongs to a well known real estate agent in my area. This was a fire of electrical origin in a Federal Pacific panel per the agent. Happened a few months ago”. . . There’s your problem right there. This picture shows the trouble with FPE panel boxes and stab-loc circuit breakers perfectly. --- Kim Christensen, ACI TREC 20358